Full assembly building systems
One of the new, promising areas of activity of the ELTIKON group of companies is the development of high-tech, full-assembled structural efficiency systems (frame and wall) for industrial housing plants, providing flexible room layout using modern methods of connecting building structures and technological conversions for their production.
This approach allows to increase the efficiency of mass housing construction by introducing the technology of assembling buildings on a construction site from prefabricated products without using welding processes, which ensures a reduction in construction labor costs, construction time and cost.
Factory production quality of serial structural elements, control and periodic tests confirming the parameters of prefabricated structures, can significantly reduce the safety factors in the design without compromising the reliability of buildings. The use of carefully designed, optimized and tested by testing of serial structural elements, provides the necessary strength, heat engineering and other properties of building elements with a minimum consumption of materials. With the development of prefab construction technologies, connective technologies are constantly being developed and improved, the designs of nodes and interfaces are changing. Ugly, constantly flowing and freezing joints of panels are left in the past. The seams of modern panel buildings are not striking, and effective insulation and waterproofing materials provide uniformity of heat and moisture protection of exterior walls.
The development of methods for calculating and designing precast reinforced concrete structures made it possible to replace customary connecting elements that were connected in structures by welding and mortgages, with a special unifying reinforcement of seams and joints of prefabricated elements. The elements themselves today are interconnected by means of threaded, loopback, anchor and other types of non-welded connections. New methods of connecting structures allow not only to ensure the reliability, coherence and stability of building elements, but also to effectively resist various adverse effects, including progressive collapses and seismic activity. In the projects of buildings, various ways of connecting prefabricated structures can be used, taking into account the features and experience of construction organizations in the region, as well as the wishes of the Customer.
For the construction of residential buildings, the wall construction scheme with walls made of reinforced concrete panels and floor slabs of hollow-core hollow-shaped slabs can be recognized as the most simple and rational. Vertical supporting structures are the walls of the building, horizontal floors. The strength and stability of the building is ensured by the joint operation of horizontal discs of floors and vertical walls, combined by special reinforcement and modern connecting technologies into a single spatial system. Шаг несущих стен может составлять до 7,2 м при высоте сечения плит перекрытий 220 мм. The step of the bearing walls can be up to 7.2 m with the height of the cross section of floor slabs 220 mm. This allows you to design without bearing walls inside the apartments, which provides the flexibility of internal apartment layouts, the possibility of changing them at the request of residents. Depending on the number of floors, such buildings can be designed with plates supported on transverse or longitudinal walls. Placing plates on external walls can, as a rule, be carried out in buildings up to 10 floors and with a floor height of at least 3 meters. This scheme is used when constructing built-in rooms on the first floors of buildings, with the provision of free volumes within half of the building width. When plates are supported on transverse walls, buildings up to 25 floors can be erected. Built-in rooms with increased height are performed on the first floors, while the flexibility of the plans of the built-in rooms is limited by the pitch of the transverse load-bearing walls. Buildings of these types have a minimal cost, are easy to assemble, and can be made of sectional or point type. Facade plastics can be provided by using protruding and collapsing volumes, bay windows of various shapes. Homes can be designed with additional loggias of various types or suspended balconies.
Pic. 1. Building construction with load-bearing transverse walls Pic. 2. Building construction with longitudinal bearing walls
Residential buildings of frame construction allow solving practically any space-planning tasks, since they technically provide their implementation. This constructive system provides free spaces throughout the building, different heights of the floors in the same building for housing any level of comfort, allows you to embed rooms for various purposes, both in the above-ground and in the underground part of the building. Structural elements: columns, bolts, stiffness diaphragms, as well as bezel-shaped molding plates made at the factory, make it possible to build the most popular and expensive frame buildings today in the same time frame and with the same cost price as low-cost panel houses. It is in prefabricated frame houses that the minimum values of specific indicators of concrete and reinforcement consumption per square meter are achieved. Vertical supporting structures of frame buildings are columns, horizontal - crossbars and floor slabs. The strength and stability of the building is ensured by the joint operation of columns, horizontal discs of floors and vertical stiffness diaphragms. Modern frame buildings do not have tie plates, they are mounted on threaded joints with solvent-free support of bezpolubochnogo molding plates on the girders. The special design of the columns makes it possible to support the bolts on either of the four sides of the column, and, if necessary, at arbitrary angles. The use of precast reinforced concrete frames allows you to design buildings with a height of 25 or more floors. Bearing capacity in buildings of higher number of floors is provided by the use of reinforced concrete columns of a larger section or steel concrete columns.
Pic. 3. The design of the frame building
In the frame buildings, the bolts are usually located along the outer walls and in the central part of the building where, as a rule, corridors and utility rooms are located. In the case of a constructive need for the arrangement of crossbars in living rooms, instead of reinforced concrete beams, use special hidden prefabricated steel-concrete beams. Exterior wall panels are made not bearing and are installed on the floor. Plastic facades, as in the houses of wall construction, can be provided by the use of protruding and collapsing volumes, bay windows of various shapes. With a small number of floors in homes, additional loggias of various types can be designed, in high-rise buildings, suspended balconies can be arbitrarily placed on any part of the facade. Frame houses, as well as houses of a wall design, can be designed one, two or multisection.